Newsletter 2 Februari 2010

Photo
New recruits salute during a ceremony to join the army at an army recruit training center in Nonsan, south of Seoul February 1, 2010. The ceremony was suspended last September to protect people from a possible spread of the H1N1 flu. Source: Daylife - Reuters Read More: http://www.daylife.com/photo/0eNG4N09u0aR1?q=H1N1 Quote"By the summer of 2009, shortly after the H1N1 flu pandemic had first emerged, there was a waiting list for the first several million doses of the forthcoming new flu vaccine. At the head of the line, naturally, were the world's richest nations.."Source: WNYW Fox 5 New YorkRead more: http://www.daylife.com/quote/06Fv0Psd1z0F2?q=H1N1
New Issue
Economics of Flu Vaccines by Colleen O'Rourke
[...]
Discussion Questions:1. Do you think that the goal of those who control flu vaccine policy should be to get the best health outcome, to minimize the cost to GDP, or some combination of the two? What public health policies would achieve your preferred policy goal?2. Assume that society does want to maximize productivity in dollar terms rather than health outcomes. Now, take into consideration the fact that those who do get sick might require expensive medical treatment, the cost of which will be partially borne by society. How does this alter the analysis of who should receive the vaccines?3. Economists often are fond of markets as allocation mechanisms because the forces of supply and demand determine a price that allocates goods to those who are willing to pay for them the most. How would a market for flu vaccine work? Why is it different from a market for non-life-affecting goods and services, like books or cars?4. Firms (especially ones with high-productivity employees) value their employees’ health. It is estimated that that the total yearly economic cost of the flu in the U.S. is over $80 billion. Many companies have started to recognize this and have made attempts to protect their own economic interest by paying for or providing flu vaccines to their employees. As a result, employees who otherwise may not have been vaccinated (since the unsubsidized cost exceeds the expected health benefit) are more likely to accept the free vaccine. Is this efficient? Is it equitable?5. Vaccines have a limited shelf-life – that is, they can only be used for a particular period of time if they are to be effective. For this reason, the timing of development, production, and distribution of flu vaccines in the United States is largely based on the pattern of the flu season in previous years. Go to Google Flu Trends to see a graph comparing the incidence of flu activity in the United States this year with previous years. How does the current flu season differ from previous years? If you were in charge of setting production policy for 2010, what might you change in order to produce the correct amount of vaccine for each strain of flu at the appropriate time?
Source: Econblog
Read more: http://econblog.aplia.com/2010/01/economics-of-flu-vaccines.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+EconAplia+%28Aplia+Econ+Blog%3A+News+for+Economics+Students%29
Research
Tropism and Innate Host Responses of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in ex Vivo and in Vitro Cultures of Human Conjunctiva and Respiratory Tract
Abstract
The novel pandemic influenza H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus of swine origin causes mild disease but occasionally leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. It is important to understand the pathogenesis of this new disease in humans. We compared the virus tropism and host-responses elicited by pandemic H1N1pdm and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in ex vivo cultures of human conjunctiva, nasopharynx, bronchus, and lung, as well as in vitro cultures of human nasopharyngeal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells. We found comparable replication and host-responses in seasonal and pandemic H1N1 viruses. However, pandemic H1N1pdm virus differs from seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in its ability to replicate in human conjunctiva, suggesting subtle differences in its receptor-binding profile and highlighting the potential role of the conjunctiva as an additional route of infection with H1N1pdm. A greater viral replication competence in bronchial epithelium at 33°C may also contribute to the slight increase in virulence of the pandemic influenza virus. In contrast with highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus, pandemic H1N1pdm does not differ from seasonal influenza virus in its intrinsic capacity for cytokine dysregulation. Collectively, these results suggest that pandemic H1N1pdm virus differs in modest but subtle ways from seasonal H1N1 virus in its intrinsic virulence for humans, which is in accord with the epidemiology of the pandemic to date. These findings are therefore relevant for understanding transmission and therapy.
Source: American Journal of Pathology
Read more: http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/abstract/ajpath.2010.091087v1
Comment
Revealed: Swine flu death rate in Scotland third worst in world..it's even worse than Mexico
By Derek Alexander SCOTLAND'S swine flu death rate is the third worst in the world - beating Mexico where the virus was first discovered.Only Argentina and Latvia have worse death rates.Last night, ministers were being urged to investigate as medical experts blamed Scotland's poor health record for the shocking findings.Stefan Chmelik, of New Medicine Group, said: "There is something of a general health crisis in Scotland."It stands to reason that if you're fit and healthy then you're more able to fight off disease - and if you're unhealthy then you're potentially more susceptible."In Scotland, the swine flu mortality rate is 13.2 per million people - more than double the 5.76 figure for the rest of the UK.It's also 45 per cent higher than Mexico and three times higher than Poland, where health bosses have refused to administer a vaccine.Argentina tops the poll with 15.37 deaths per million, followed by Latvia with 14.37.Swine flu has caused more than 14,000 deaths in more than 200 countries.Tory health spokeswoman Mary Scanlon said: "These are quite alarming statistics and underline the very poor state of public health in Scotland, even in comparison to less wealthy countries."The Scottish government denied Scotland's swine flu figures are concerning.A spokesman said: "Each country has different methods of reporting instances of H1N1 infection and deaths."We've put enormous effort into ensuring robust and accurate surveillance."
Source: Daily Record Scotland
Read more: http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/2010/02/01/revealed-swine-flu-death-in-scotland-third-worst-in-world-it-s-even-worse-than-mexico-86908-22010337/

Risk Communication
Preventive Steps Helped Summer Campers Avoid Swine Flu
An Alabama summer camp managed to contain the spread of swine flu by giving preventive Tamiflu to kids at risk and encouraging the use of sanitizers for hands and surfaces, a new report says. Children are especially vulnerable to swine flu, also known as H1N1. The disease struck three boys who attended a two-week boys' camp in July 2009. They were given medication and sent home, according to the report.
Source: Yahoo News - Health Day News
Read more: http://news.yahoo.com/s/hsn/20100201/hl_hsn/preventivestepshelpedsummercampersavoidswineflu

Chen Qi Blog
THIRTY-SIX people tested positive yesterday for Influenza A (H1N1) in Brunei Darussalam. The new cases were recorded by the Ministry of Health in just one day. This stresses the importance for...
Obama budget boosts funds for tropical diseases
Reuters
With the pandemic of H1N1 swine flu barely on the wane, the budget cuts funding for pandemic influenza and other new infections by 29 percent to $75 million ...

Disclaimer: Newsletter ini hanya merupakan kumpulan dari artikel/liputan/tulisan yang diambil dari berbagai sumber mengenai situasi terkini pandemi influenza di seluruh dunia termasuk Indonesia. Namun demikian isi/ilustrasi/foto tidak mewakili kepentingan atau kebijakan KOMNAS FBPI secara langsung
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